Soil Profiles: Apas

Typifying Pedon
Type Location
Range in Characteristics
Competing Soils and Their Differences
Setting
Principal Associated Soils
Drainage and Permeability
Use and Vegetation
Distribution and Extent
Series Established
Remarks on Classification
Suitability for Agriculture
Analytical Data

Apas Series
The Apas Series is a member of the Apas Family which is a very fine, oxidic, isohyperthermic, red Tipik Tempalemoks. It typifies this family and is developed over andesites. Soils of the Apas Series are characterized by their deep well drained heavy clay textured oxic horizons which have an ECEC of more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. These soils are red or yellowish red in colour in the subsoils. Structures are moderate to weak, fine, subangular blocky and consistence is friable.

Typifying Pedon

Type Location
Soils of the Apas Series were first established by Paton (1963) during the reconnaissance soil survey of the Semporna Peninsula. The above pedon was described by Paramananthan (1997) for the Soil Familiarisation and Soil Management Tour 2/1997 Tawau-Semporna, Sabah. The pedon was located under oil palm on rolling terrain at an elevation of 150 m (450 feet) in Ladang Sungei Kawa along the Tawau-Quoin Hill road. Location: Topographic Sheet 4/118/9, 4°23’15” N, 118°01’50” E (Grid Reference 4/118/9 – 919843 m).

Range in Characteristics
Little is known about the range in characteristics of the Apas Series. The soils are almost always deep with colours ranging from yellowish red to red within 50 cm of the soil surface. Field textures are uniformly clayey with more than 60% clay. However poor dispersion sometimes gives high silt values in the analysis results. Structures are weak to moderate medium subangular blocky and consistence is friable. The ECEC must be more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. It must be pointed out that those soils mapped in the past as Apas Series with an ECEC of less than 1.5 cmol should be now reclassified as the Segamat Series.

Competing Soils and Their Differences 
Many soils have the red colours similar to that of the Apas Series. Soils having both a red colour, heavy clay texture and an oxic horizon include soils such as the Segamat, Prang and Kampong Kalam Series. These soils have an ECEC of less than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. Other red soils with an oxic horizon include the Tarat/deep, Sagu and Patang Series which all belong to the Apas Family. These soils have an ECEC of more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay and are differentiated by the parent material from which they are formed. The Apas (moderately deep soil), Tarat and Jebong Series (moderately deep soil) are all developed over andesites and could possible be correlated to form just one soil series after more work is done. The Sagu Series is developed over limestone while the Patang Series over hornfels (metamorphic rocks).

Setting
Soils of the Apas Series typically occur on undulating, rolling to hilly terrain (4– 38% or 2–20° slopes) at elevation of less than 200 metres (< 660 feet).

Principal Associated Soils
The Apas Series has often been mapped together with other soils developed over fine grained intermediate and basic igneous rocks such as andesites and basalts. As redefined here soils of the Apas Series can be expected to be mapped in association with soils of the Segamat, Table Series and soils of the Kobovan and Beeston Series. In the existing maps the Apas Family included soils with an ECEC of more than and less than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. The Apas Series as redefined here only includes soils with an ECEC of more than 1.5 cmol. Both the Kobovan and Beeston Series have an argillic/kandic horizon while the Table Series has brown colours.

Drainage and Permeability
Soils of the Apas Series are generally well to somewhat excessively drained with good permeability.

Use and Vegetation
Soils of the Apas Series have been planted with oil palm, rubber and cocoa but in some areas they remain under primary forest.

Distribution and Extent
The Apas Series has to-date been only mapped in the Sandakan and Tawau Residencies in Sabah. Their actual extent based on their redefinition here is not known but can be expected in areas mapped as Segamat in Peninsular Malaysia and as the Tarat Series in Sarawak.

Series Established
The Apas Series was established by Paton (1963) during the reconnaissance soil survey of the Semporna Peninsula. The source of name is the Apas River to the east of Tawau.

Remarks on Classification
The Apas Series as redefined here is classified according to the Malaysian Soil Taxonomy – Second Approximation (Paramananthan 1998) as a member of the very fine, oxidic, isohyperthermic, red family of Tipik Tempalemoks over fine grained intermediate and basic igneous rocks. They are classified here as soils having a deep, red oxic horizon which have heavy clay textures and an ECEC of more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. In the Keys to Soil Taxonomy – Eighth Edition (Soil Survey Staff 1998) this soil would probably be classified as a Typic Hapludox. In the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World – Revised Legend (FAO 1990) the Apas Series would probably be classified as Haplic Ferralsols.

Suitability for Agriculture
The main limitation for agriculture in these soils is their generally low fertility status, high P fixation and their high permeability.


News

AAR wishes to congratulate Ms. Gan Siau Ting and their team members for being awarded the 2013 PIPOC’s Best Poster Award, for their poster paper “A High Density DArT- and SNP-based Linkage Map of ...
AAR wishes to congratulate Mr. Sim Choon Cheak for being awarded the 2012 Scholar Award, Southeast Asia region by IPNI. For further details, please visit IPNI website at http://www.ipni.net/article/I...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nThe GLC Open Day, a showcase of government-linked companies in collaborations with private sectors was held from 24-26 June 2011 at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Boustead Holdings Bhd. is on...
The original article in PDF format\r\n\r\nAs food prices escalate throughout the world, scientists say it is time for Malaysia to pay more attention to soil and crop research.\r\n\r\n\"The crisis of high foo...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nDr. Kee Khan Kiang, Director of Research, AAR holding the certificate of achievement during the 5th Malaysia Power Brand 2011 Award Gala Dinner held on 27 March 2011.\r\n\r\n\r\nCongr...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nNote: This article is written by Dr. Chee in mandarin and published by Agroworld, Issue No. 236, February 2011, Kuala Lumpur : 34-36. (Translated by Soon, S.H. and reviewed by Wong, C.K.)\r\n...
RM4.4b allocation for oil palm replanting (published in Business Times dated 5 January 2011)\r\n\r\nThe original article in PDF format\r\nMalaysia\'s oil palm industry will spend RM4.4 billion to replan...
From \'Dolly Parton\' bunches to smaller one, oil-laden ones (published in Business Times, 23 November 2010)\r\n\r\nClick here to enlarge image\r\n...
Congratulations to AAR on being awarded the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System certification for its Tissue Culture Laboratory (published in New Straits Times dated 20 November 2010)\r\n...
(The mandarin version of this article is published in Alam Pertanian, issue 8, 2010. This article is translated from mandarin to English by SSH)\r\n(The Bahasa Malaysia version of this article is a...
\"油棕品种 - 矮种,高产量,高油量特点 - 打造丰硕收成油棕园\" (published in Alam Pertanian, issue 7, 2010)\r\n\r\n\r\n...
\"Baka Kelapa Sawit Terkini Untuk Meraih Hasil Yang Tinggi\" (published in Info Pertanian, issue 7, 2010)\r\n >>Mandarin version<<\r\n\r\n\r\n...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nScope of certification: Production and sales of tissue cultured clonal oil palm planting materials starting from the receiving of embryoids\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nAcknowledgeme...
Aerial Impression of AAR\'s New Complex\r\n\r\n\r\n[ngg_images source=\"albums\" container_ids=\"2\" display_type=\"photocrati-nextgen_basic_extended_album\" gallery_display_type=\"photocrati-nextgen_basic_thumbnai...
We regret to announce the sudden demise of a dear friend and colleague Madam Ho Yuk Wah recently. The International Oil Palm fraternity has lost a valuable member who had contributed so much to the in...
AAR moving into new office complex (published in The Star dated 18 January 2008)\r\n...
Strong demand boosts CPO price (published in Financial Daily dated 18 January 2008)\r\n...
Cheap oil palm replanting loans for smallholders (published in New Straits Times dated 18 January 2008)\r\n...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nOrder form\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nPreface\r\n\"There has never been a cover crop like this before in our plantations\" was the common comment that we heard at the Seminar and Field Tour on \" Mucuna bract...
The Deputy Chief Minister Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Alfred Jabu Numpang refuted allegations made by some Western non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that peat soil in Sarawak was unsuitable for plantin...
Centre for crop research (published in The Star dated 25 February 2007)\r\n...
Queen\'s Royal Visit to Goodenough College\r\n\r\nMr. Patrick Ng (second from left) was presented to the Queen of United Kingdom on 10 November 2006.\r\n\"Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of United Kingdom would...
AA Resources optimistic of 20pc sales growth (published in New Straits Times dated 19/07/2006)\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nEditor\'s notes\r\nErrata\r\n1) Dr. Soh Aik Chin is Head of Agricultural Resources and not chief exe...
Cloned oil palms push up AAR revenue (published in The Star dated 19/07/2006)\r\n\r\nEditor\'s notes\r\nErrata\r\n1) Dr. Soh Aik Chin is Head of Agricultural Resources and not chief executive officer....
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nWe are proud to announce that Dr Soh Aik Chin, the Head of Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn. Bhd., has been awarded the Fellow of Academy Science for year 2006 under the biological scien...
Clones from Ijok (published in Malaysian Business dated 16-30 June 2006)\r\n\r\n\r\n...
AAR is proud to announce that Mr. Patrick Ng (Research Officer), who joined us in 1998 has been awarded the prestigious \'British Chevening Scholarships\' for year 2006 from the British Council of Malay...
\r\n\r\n\r\nAAR wish to congratulate Madam Siti Norasikin Binti Moksen (Research Clerk) on her successful completion of the Executive Diploma in Management with Distinction from University of Malaya. It is ...
\r\nWe are proud to announce that Dr Soh Aik Chin, the Head of Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn. Bhd., was presented the prestigious Malaysian Toray Science Foundation 2005 Science & Technology ...