Soil Profiles: Munchong

Typifying Pedon
Type Location
Range in Characteristics
Competing Soils and Their Differences
Setting
Principal Associated Soils
Drainage and Permeability
Use and Vegetation
Distribution and Extent
Series Established
Remarks on Classification
Suitability for Agriculture
Analytical Data

Munchong Series
The Munchong Series is a member of the Munchong Family which is a very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic, red-yellow Tipik Tempalemoks. It typifies this family and is developed over fine grained sedimentary rocks (shale) and low grade metamorphic rocks. Soils of the Munchong Series are characterized by their deep heavy clay textured oxic horizons which have yellowish brown to strong brown colours and an ECEC in the 25 to 100 cm of more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. Soil structures are weak medium to fine subangular blocky and consistence is friable.

Typifying Pedon 

Type Location 
Soils of the Munchong Series were probably first established by Owen (1951) on Munchong Estate near the village of Kuala Kubu Baharu in Selangor. The above pedon was described by Chan (1975) as part of his M.Sc. study. The soil was located on Field 54 RRIM Experiment Station in Sungei Buloh, Selangor on flat to gently undulating terrain (0–12% or 0–6° slopes) at an elevation of 15– 30 metres a.s.l. Location: Topographic Sheet 3757, 3°11′ N, 101°34′ E (Grid Reference 3757 – 965525 m).

Range in Characteristics
Soils of the Munchong Series must have a clay content of over 60% and colours that range from brownish yellow and yellowish brown (10YR5/6–5/8, 6/6–6/8) to strong brown (7.5YR5/6–5/8) at 50 cm depth. These are soils with a deep oxic horizon extending to over 125 cm. Occasional a thin band of fine petroplinthite gravels may be present. Structures are weak medium to fine subangular blocky and consistence is friable. Chemically these soils have an ECEC of more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay.

Competing Soils and Their Differences 
Soils of the Munchong Series because they have heavy clay textures and yellowish brown to strong brown colour with an oxic horizon can be confused with soils having similar textures and colours such as the Jerangau, Senai, Jarangan, Katong and Tangga Series with an oxic horizon and soils such as the Lanchang and Chat Series with a kandic horizon. Soils of the Jerangau and Senai Series are developed over granodiorite and gabbro parent material respectively and have an ECEC of less than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. The Jarangan, Katong and Tangga Series are similar to the Munchong Series but are developed over basalts, andesites and limestone respectively. Both the Lanchang and Chat Series have a kandic horizon.

Setting 
Soils of the Munchong Series typically occur on undulating, rolling, to hilly terrain (4–38% or 2–20° slopes) at elevations of less than 200 m (600 feet).

Principal Associated Soils 
Soils of the Munchong Series have to-date been only mapped in Peninsular Malaysia. They have been mapped in many parts of Peninsular Malaysia where they occur in association with soils of the Malacca and Gajah Mati Series in a catena relationship with the petroplinthic soils of the Malacca and Gajah Mati occupying the crest of hills. Soils of the Munchong Series have also been mapped in association with the redder coloured soils of the Prang Series. During the reconnaissance soil surveys many areas have been mapped as associations of the Munchong Series with soils of the Serdang, Bungor and Durian Series.

Drainage and Permeability 
Soils of the Munchong Series are generally well to somewhat excessively drained and have a rapid permeability.

Use and Vegetation 
Soils of the Munchong Series have been extensively cultivated to oil palm, rubber and fruit trees. On the gentler slopes cash crops have also been planted.

Distribution and Extent 
Soils of the Munchong Series have been mapped quite extensively in many States of Peninsular Malaysia from Kedah to Johor. Their total extent is however not known.

Series Established 
This soil was established by Owen (1951) during the mapping of rubber growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The source of name is Munchong Estate near Kuala Kubu Baharu in Selangor.

Remarks on Classification 
The Munchong Series is classified here according to the Malaysian Soil Taxonomy – Second Approximation (Paramananthan 1998) as a member of the very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic red-yellow family of Tipik Tempalemoks. They are classified here as soils with a deep well drained oxic horizon which have yellowish brown to strong brown colours and an ECEC of more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. In the Keys to Soil Taxonomy – Eighth Edition (Soil Survey Staff 1998) the Munchong Series would probably be classified as Haplic Hapludox. In the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World – Revised Legend (FAO 1990), the Munchong Series would probably be classified as Haplic Ferralsols.

Suitability for Agriculture 
The main limitations for the use of the Munchong Series for agriculture would be their low fertility status and the slope on which these soils occur. The Munchong Series soils should be suitable for wide range of crops.


News

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