Soil Profiles: Sabrang

Typifying Pedon
Type Location
Range in Characteristics
Competing Soils and Their Differences
Setting
Principal Associated Soils
Drainage and Permeability
Use and Vegetation
Distribution and Extent
Series Established
Remarks on Classification
Suitability for Agriculture
Analytical Data

Sabrang Series
The Sabrang Series is a member of the family of fine, mixed, isohyperthermic, brown Tipik-Sulfidik Tempajelahs. They are developed over brackish water deposits. These soils have a brown to dark brown silty clay A horizons overlying a brown to reddish brown silty clay cambic B horizon which extends to a depth of below 50 cm. This is underlain by a unripe silty clay bluish gray marine clay which is sulfidic. The structures in the B horizons range from weak coarse angular blocky to moderate medium subangular blocky.

Typifying Pedon 

Type Location 
The Sabrang Series was initially mapped as the Jawa Series (B) by staff of the National Soil Survey during the Semi-detailed Survey of Johor Barat Phase II and that of Northwest Selangor. The name Sabrang Series was however used by staff of the Rubber Research Institute for such soils mapped in Lower Perak. In their original definition, soils of the Sabrang Series are underlain by either sulfidic or non sulfidic material. In the present redefinition the Sabrang Series has sulfidic materials below 50 cm while the Metah Series has non-sulfidic material. Noordin Daud (1980) described the above pedon in Sabrang Estate south of Telok Intan in Perak. This profile is now taken as the type locality. Location: Topographic Sheet 3460, 4°02’10” N, 100°57’40” E (Grid Reference 3460 – 297468 m).

Range in Characteristics
The Sabrang Series often has a surface horizon which is clay to silty clay and has a colour which ranges from black to dark brown, dark grayish brown to dark gray (10YR2/1, 3/3, 4/1, 4/2, 4/3; 7.5YR3/2, 4/2, 4/4) and has structures of moderate to strong medium to fine angular and subangular blocky structures and friable consistence. The B horizon extends to a depth of less than 100 cm but more than 50 cm and has silty clay to clay textures and have dark brown, brown, dark grayish brown and grayish brown (10YR3/3, 4/2, 4/3, 5/2, 5/3 and 7.5YR4/2) colours. Structures in the upper part of the B horizon are moderate to strong medium angular to subangular blocky but grades with depth to a coarse angular blocky to prismatic. Consistence similarly changes from friable to slightly sticky with depth. The underlying unripe marine clay is greenish gray, dark greenish gray or bluish gray (5GY4/1, 5/1, 6/1; 5G4/1, 5/1, 6/1; 5BG4/1, 5/1, 6/1) silty clay with massive structures and very sticky and plastic consistence. This marine clay commonly occurs at depths of around 70–80 cm. This material in the Sabrang Series is sulfidic.

Competing Soils and Their Differences 
Soils of the Sabrang Series may be confused with soils of the Sedu Series, Jawa Series, Metah Series and Serkat Series. All these soils are also characterized by brown colours, silty clay textures and moderate structures. However the Sedu Series and Jawa Series both are acid sulfate soils and hence have sulfuric horizons at varying depths. The Serkat Series does not have a sulfuric horizon but is differentiated from the Sabrang Series by the depth which the marine clay is encountered. In the Serkat Series the marine clay is encountered within 50 cm of the surface. The Metah Series has non-sulfidic materials below the cambic horizon but within 100 cm. The Selangor Series does not have the marine clay within 100 cm of the surface. In Sabah, soils of the Weston Family (Thionic Fluvisols) which when drained could develop into the Bergosong Family (Thionic-Humic Gleysols) which may resemble the Sabrang Series but more data is required to correlate these soils. Similarly in Sarawak the Rampangi Series and Punda Series (Thionic Soils) when drained could develop into soils similar to the Sabrang Series.

Setting 
The Sabrang Series forms a sequence of soils with the Serkat Series and Selangor Series with the Serkat Series being the poorer drained with the Sabrang Series in the intermediate position. These soils are often formed when the brackish water swamps are drained. They often occur between the marine clay soils near the coast and the peat swamps.

Principal Associated Soils 
Soils of the Sabrang Series are often associated with soils of the Selangor Series, Serkat Series, Sedu Series and Jawa Series. Both the Sedu Series and Jawa Series are acid sulfate soils and have a sulfuric horizon. The Selangor Series and Serkat Series differ from the Sabrang Series in the depth at which the marine clay is encountered.

Drainage and Permeability 
The Sabrang Series are somewhat poorly to poorly drained soils. They have a permanent groundwater table between 50 to 100 cm depth. The permeability in the B horizon is often good.

Use and Vegetation 
The Sabrang Series is a man-made soil formed by artificial drainage. They are cultivated mainly with oil palm, rubber, coconut, cocoa and coffee. Some vegetables and cash crops are also sometimes grown on these soils.

Distribution and Extent 
The soils of the Sabrang Series are only recently established and hence their actual distribution is not known. They have to-date been mapped in Perak, Selangor, Johor, Pahang and Terengganu.

Series Established 
This soil was formerly mapped as a variant of the Jawa Series but is now upgraded to a full series. The source of the name is Sabrang Estate, Telok Intan, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

Remarks on Classification 
The Sabrang Series is classified here according to the Malaysian Soil Taxonomy – Second Approximation (Paramananthan 1998) as a member of the fine, mixed, isohyperthermic, brown family of the Tipik-Sulfidik Tempajelahs. This classification is based on the premise that these soils have a cambic horizon which has an aquic moisture regime with a sulfidic marine clay occurring between 50 to 100 cm from the soil surface. In the Keys to Soil Taxonomy – Eighth Edition (Soil Survey Staff 1998) the Sabrang Series would probably be Sulfic Endoaquepts. In the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World – Revised Legend (FAO 1990) the Sabrang Series would probably be classified as Thionic Fluvisols.

Suitability for Agriculture 
This is a relatively good soil which can support a wide range of crops. The soil has more than 50 cm of good friable soil without any acid sulfate conditions. Thus the shallow and moderately deep rooted crops can be easily grown on this soil. Crops such as cocoa, coconut, oil palm, coffee and vegetables should do well on these soils. Water management in these soils is essential.


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