Soil Profiles: Table

Typifying Pedon
Type Location
Range in Characteristics
Competing Soils and Their Differences
Setting
Principal Associated Soils
Drainage and Permeability
Use and Vegetation
Distribution and Extent
Series Established
Remarks on Classification
Suitability for Agriculture
Analytical Data

Table Series
The Table Series is a member of the Table Family which is very fine, oxidic, isohyperthermic, brown Tipik Tempalemoks. It typifies this family and is developed over basalts (basic igneous rocks). Soils of the Table Series are characterized by their deep heavy clay textured oxic horizons with dark yellowish brown colours and an ECEC that is more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay in all horizons between 25 to 100 cm depth. Structures are weak, medium to fine subangular blocky and consistence is friable.

Typifying Pedon 

Type Location 
Soils of the Table Series were first established by Paton (1963) during the Reconnaissance Soil Survey of the Semporna Peninsula. The above pedon was described by staff of the Department of Agriculture, Sabah in the Quoin Hill Agriculture Station near Tawau, Sabah on undulating terrain (4–12% or 2–6° slopes) at an elevation of 200 m (600 feet) under oil palm. Location: Topographic Sheet 4/118/9, 4°03’35” N, 118°01’30” E (Grid Reference 4/118/9 – 915845 m).

Range in Characteristics
Little is known about the range in characteristics of this soil. The colours range from dark yellowish brown (10YR4/4, 4/6, 3/4, 3/6) to dark brown (7.5YR3/2, 3/3, 3/4) and brown (10YR4/3, 4/6 and 7.5YR4/3, 5/3 and 4/4, 5/4). Textures are uniformly heavy clays. These soils are deep and somewhat excessively drained. Structures are weak to moderate medium and fine subangular blocky and consistence is friable. Little is known about the range in chemical characteristics but as noted earlier the permanent charge values range from around 1.0–5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay.

Competing Soils and Their Differences 
The typical brown colours of the Table Series is not likely to be confused with many other soils. Soils of the Kuantan Series have many characteristics similar to those of the Table Series and only the permanent charge values separates these two soil types. Soils of the Ambun Series are yellowish red to dark reddish brown in colour (hues of 5YR or 2.5YR) and are developed over ultrabasic rocks on steep slopes. Soils of the Katai Family over alluvium from basic and ultrabasic rocks ranges in colour from reddish brown to yellowish brown but have an argillic horizon. Soils of the Besar Series also have similar colours but have an argillic horizon with high base saturation values. Soils of the Tangga Series and the Sagu Series may also have similar colours but are developed over limestone parent material. The Nobusu Series has similar colours and chemical characteristics but has lower clay contents (35–60%) and is developed on alluvia from basic/ultrabasic rocks.

Setting 
Soils of the Table Series typically occur on undulating to rolling terrain (4–24% or 2–12° slopes) at elevations of less than 200 m (< 600 feet).

Principal Associated Soils 
Soils of the Table Series have to-date been only mapped in the Tawau-Semporna area in Sabah in association with the Apas Series and the Katai Series. The Apas Series is red in colour while the Katai occurs over alluvia and on undulating to level terrain and has an argillic horizon. As mentioned earlier those with a cation retention capacity of less than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay should be reclassified as the Kuantan Series.

Drainage and Permeability 
Soils of the Table Series are generally well to somewhat excessively drained. Permeability is also generally good.

Use and Vegetation 
In the Tawau area in Sabah where these soils have been mapped they have been mainly under oil palm, or logged primary forest. On the Quoin Hill Station where these soils occur other research plots with other cash crops and cocoa were also present.

Distribution and Extent 
The Table Series has to-date been only mapped in the Tawau area in Sabah around Quoin Hill. The actual extent of these soils is not known.

Series Established 
This soil was established by Paton (1963) during the Reconnaissance Soil Survey of the Semporna Peninsula. The source of name is not known.

Remarks on Classification 
The Table Series is classified here according to the Malaysian Soil Taxonomy – Second Approximation (Paramananthan 1998) as a member of the very fine, oxidic, isohyperthermic brown family of Tipik Tempalemoks over basalt parent material. They are classified here as deep soils that have clayey brown coloured oxic horizon in which the permanent charge is more than 1.5 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. In the Keys to Soil Taxonomy – Eighth Edition (Soil Survey Staff 1998) these soils would probably be classified as Typic Hapludox. In the FAO/ UNESCO Soil Map of the World – Revised Legend (FAO 1990) the Table Series would probably be classified as Haplic Ferralsols.

Suitability for Agriculture 
The main limitation for agriculture in these soils is their generally low fertility status, high P fixation, and their high permeability. They should be suitable for a wide range of crops.


News

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