Soil Profiles: Ulu Dong

Typifying Pedon
Type Location
Range in Characteristics
Competing Soils and Their Differences
Setting
Principal Associated Soils
Drainage and Permeability
Use and Vegetation
Distribution and Extent
Series Established
Remarks on Classification
Suitability for Agriculture
Analytical Data

Ulu Dong Series
The Ulu Dong Series is a member of the family of very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic, red Tipik Lutualemkuts. It is developed over quartz-mica-schists. They are characterized here by their deep kandic horizons with a clay content of more than 60% with no significant decrease to 100 cm of the soil surface and their red to yellowish red colours. Structures are weak medium and coarse subangular blocky and consistence is friable. Patchy clayskins occur on ped faces. The CECclay is less than 16 cmol (+) in all horizons between 25 to 100 cm of the soil surface.

Typifying Pedon 

Type Location 
The Ulu Dong Series were first described and studied by Lim (1977) near Dong village to the east of Raub. The above pedon was also described by Lim during the Detailed Reconnaissance Soil Survey of the KESEDAR Region, Ulu Kelantan (Lim et al. 1980) at the 57 km (36 milestone) Tanah Merah to Batu Melintang Road over quartz-mica-schists at an elevation of 103 m (340 feet) under secondary forest on hilly terrain. Location: Topographic Sheet 3867, 5°49′ N, 102°00′ E (Grid Reference 3867 – 440430 m).

Range in Characteristics
Little is known about the range in characteristics of the Ulu Dong Series. The main characteristics are that these soils must be deep and have a clay content of over 60% and the clay content should not decrease from the maximum by more than 20% within 100 cm of the soil surface. Some soils with about 55% clay have also been mapped as Ulu Dong Series in the past. Colours in the subsoils belong to the red colour class. Subsoil colours range from yellowish red (5YR4/6, 5/6, 5/8) to red (2.5YR3/6, 4/6, 4/8, 5/6, 5/8, 6/6, 6/8) to light red (2.5YR7/6, 7/8). The colours normally become redder with depth. Structures are weak coarse and medium subangular blocky and consistence is friable. Clayskins occur on ped faces. Mottling is rare and if present is faint.

Competing Soils and Their Differences 
Soils of the Ulu Dong Series are likely to be confused with other red-coloured soils which have heavy clay (> 60% clay) textures. These include soils of the Patang, Prang, Kampong Kolam, Apas, Tarat and Sagu Series. All these soils have an oxic horizon while the Ulu Dong Series has a kandic horizon. The Langkawi Series over limestone has many properties similar to the Ulu Dong Series. The Ulu Dong Series generally has lower clay contents and some sand while the Langkawi Series higher clay content and virtually no sand. In Sabah no red-coloured soils with a deep kandic horizon have been mapped but some soils mapped as the Kumansi Series/deep/red variant may have some features similar to the Ulu Dong Series but the Kumansi Series normally have a CECclay of more than 24 cmol (+) kg–1 clay. Soils of the Chat Series (CECclay less than 16 cmol, red-yellow colour class), Melugu (CECclay 16–24 cmol, red-yellow colour class) and Stass (CECclay more than 24 cmol, red-yellow colour class) are similar textured but differ in CECclay values and subsoil colours. The Jakar Series has red colours but has 35–60% clay and a CECclay of more than 24 cmol.

Setting 
Soils of the Ulu Dong Series to-date have been mapped on rolling, hilly to steep terrain (slopes in excess of 12% or 6°) at elevations of 30 m to over 200 m (100– 700 feet).

Principal Associated Soils 
The Ulu Dong Series has been mapped in association with soils of the Chat Series (CECclay less than 16 cmol, red-yellow colour, clay content more than 60%). Occasionally they have also been mapped in association with soils of the Bungor Series (CECclay less than 16 cmol, clay content 35 to 60%, red-yellow colour class).

Drainage and Permeability < Soils of the Ulu Dong Series are deep, well drained soils with a good permeability. Use and Vegetation 
Rubber, fruit trees and oil palm are the commonest crops grown on soils of the Ulu Dong Series. Some of these soils may still be under primary forest.

Distribution and Extent 
Soils of the Ulu Dong Series have to-date been only mapped in the states of Kelantan, Pahang and Johor. Their actual extent is not fully known.

Series Established 
The series was established by Lim (1977) during soil surveys in Pahang State. The source of name is the Kampong Ulu Dong off the Raub-Benta road, Pahang State, Peninsular Malaysia.

Remarks on Classification 
Soils of the Ulu Dong Series are classified here according to the Malaysian Soil Taxonomy – Second Approximation (Paramananthan 1998) as a member of the very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic red family of Tipik Lutualemkuts. They are classified as deep, well drained soils having a kandic horizon with red colours and a clay content in excess of 60%. In the Keys to Soil Taxonomy – Eighth Edition (Soil Survey Staff 1998) soils of the Ulu Dong Series are probably classified as Typic Kandiudox. In the FAO/UNESCO Soil Map of the World – Revised Legend (FAO 1990) these soils would probably be Haplic Nitisols.

Suitability for Agriculture 
Soils of the Ulu Dong Series are probably suitable for a wide range of crops with proper management. The slope on which these soils occur, their low fertility status and phosphorus fixation are the main limitations. With good management these soils should be suitable for a wide range of crops such as oil palm, rubber, fruit trees, pepper and cocoa.


News

AAR wishes to congratulate Ms. Gan Siau Ting and their team members for being awarded the 2013 PIPOC’s Best Poster Award, for their poster paper “A High Density DArT- and SNP-based Linkage Map of ...
AAR wishes to congratulate Mr. Sim Choon Cheak for being awarded the 2012 Scholar Award, Southeast Asia region by IPNI. For further details, please visit IPNI website at http://www.ipni.net/article/I...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nThe GLC Open Day, a showcase of government-linked companies in collaborations with private sectors was held from 24-26 June 2011 at Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre. Boustead Holdings Bhd. is on...
The original article in PDF format\r\n\r\nAs food prices escalate throughout the world, scientists say it is time for Malaysia to pay more attention to soil and crop research.\r\n\r\n\"The crisis of high foo...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nDr. Kee Khan Kiang, Director of Research, AAR holding the certificate of achievement during the 5th Malaysia Power Brand 2011 Award Gala Dinner held on 27 March 2011.\r\n\r\n\r\nCongr...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nNote: This article is written by Dr. Chee in mandarin and published by Agroworld, Issue No. 236, February 2011, Kuala Lumpur : 34-36. (Translated by Soon, S.H. and reviewed by Wong, C.K.)\r\n...
RM4.4b allocation for oil palm replanting (published in Business Times dated 5 January 2011)\r\n\r\nThe original article in PDF format\r\nMalaysia\'s oil palm industry will spend RM4.4 billion to replan...
From \'Dolly Parton\' bunches to smaller one, oil-laden ones (published in Business Times, 23 November 2010)\r\n\r\nClick here to enlarge image\r\n...
Congratulations to AAR on being awarded the ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System certification for its Tissue Culture Laboratory (published in New Straits Times dated 20 November 2010)\r\n...
(The mandarin version of this article is published in Alam Pertanian, issue 8, 2010. This article is translated from mandarin to English by SSH)\r\n(The Bahasa Malaysia version of this article is a...
\"油棕品种 - 矮种,高产量,高油量特点 - 打造丰硕收成油棕园\" (published in Alam Pertanian, issue 7, 2010)\r\n\r\n\r\n...
\"Baka Kelapa Sawit Terkini Untuk Meraih Hasil Yang Tinggi\" (published in Info Pertanian, issue 7, 2010)\r\n >>Mandarin version<<\r\n\r\n\r\n...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nScope of certification: Production and sales of tissue cultured clonal oil palm planting materials starting from the receiving of embryoids\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nAcknowledgeme...
Aerial Impression of AAR\'s New Complex\r\n\r\n\r\n[ngg_images source=\"albums\" container_ids=\"2\" display_type=\"photocrati-nextgen_basic_extended_album\" gallery_display_type=\"photocrati-nextgen_basic_thumbnai...
We regret to announce the sudden demise of a dear friend and colleague Madam Ho Yuk Wah recently. The International Oil Palm fraternity has lost a valuable member who had contributed so much to the in...
AAR moving into new office complex (published in The Star dated 18 January 2008)\r\n...
Strong demand boosts CPO price (published in Financial Daily dated 18 January 2008)\r\n...
Cheap oil palm replanting loans for smallholders (published in New Straits Times dated 18 January 2008)\r\n...
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nOrder form\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nPreface\r\n\"There has never been a cover crop like this before in our plantations\" was the common comment that we heard at the Seminar and Field Tour on \" Mucuna bract...
The Deputy Chief Minister Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Alfred Jabu Numpang refuted allegations made by some Western non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that peat soil in Sarawak was unsuitable for plantin...
Centre for crop research (published in The Star dated 25 February 2007)\r\n...
Queen\'s Royal Visit to Goodenough College\r\n\r\nMr. Patrick Ng (second from left) was presented to the Queen of United Kingdom on 10 November 2006.\r\n\"Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of United Kingdom would...
AA Resources optimistic of 20pc sales growth (published in New Straits Times dated 19/07/2006)\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nEditor\'s notes\r\nErrata\r\n1) Dr. Soh Aik Chin is Head of Agricultural Resources and not chief exe...
Cloned oil palms push up AAR revenue (published in The Star dated 19/07/2006)\r\n\r\nEditor\'s notes\r\nErrata\r\n1) Dr. Soh Aik Chin is Head of Agricultural Resources and not chief executive officer....
\r\n\r\n\r\n\r\nWe are proud to announce that Dr Soh Aik Chin, the Head of Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn. Bhd., has been awarded the Fellow of Academy Science for year 2006 under the biological scien...
Clones from Ijok (published in Malaysian Business dated 16-30 June 2006)\r\n\r\n\r\n...
AAR is proud to announce that Mr. Patrick Ng (Research Officer), who joined us in 1998 has been awarded the prestigious \'British Chevening Scholarships\' for year 2006 from the British Council of Malay...
\r\n\r\n\r\nAAR wish to congratulate Madam Siti Norasikin Binti Moksen (Research Clerk) on her successful completion of the Executive Diploma in Management with Distinction from University of Malaya. It is ...
\r\nWe are proud to announce that Dr Soh Aik Chin, the Head of Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn. Bhd., was presented the prestigious Malaysian Toray Science Foundation 2005 Science & Technology ...